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Canine Anaplasmosis

One of many tick-borne diseases that threaten your dog, anaplasmosis is nothing to sneeze at.

Posted October 21, 2011 in Dog Diseases & Conditions A-Z

Reviewed By Peter Kintzer DVM, DACVIM on April 18, 2014

Overview/Risk
Ticks are not only disgusting little blood-sucking creatures, they are dangerous, too. Ticks are one of the primary couriers for transmitting certain diseases, collectively called “vector-borne [or, tick-borne] diseases,” of which canine anaplasmosis is one. Sometimes referred to as “dog fever” or “dog tick fever,” canine anaplasmosis can be found throughout the United States, primarily in the northeastern, mid-Atlantic, and north-central states, as well as in California.

To see if anaplasmosis is in your area, visit the interactive map at dogsandticks.com and click on your region.

One form of this disease is spread to your dog from the black-legged tick, also referred to as the deer tick, which also transmits Lyme disease . Another form can be passed to your best friend from the brown dog tick.

If you're interested in what ticks look like and the different types of ticks lurking, visit dogsandticks.com (if you haven't gathered, we think it's a great resource for pet-owners who want to know more about tick-borne diseases).

So, how do these nasty ticks infect your dog with anaplasmosis? Ticks acquire the bacteria that cause the disease from feeding on an infected host animal, such as a rodent or a deer. Then, they pass the bacteria to your four-legged friend by biting him and ingesting his blood.

Signs
Dog Laying DownIf Fido has been infected with anaplasmosis, he most likely will exhibit some of the following signs:

  • Joint pain and stiffness similar to the symptoms of arthritis
  • High fever 
  • Lethargy
  • Loss of appetite
  • Vomiting
  • Diarrhea
  • Neurological signs resulting in seizures and neck pain (infrequent)

Diagnosis/Treatment
Although the two forms of anaplasmosis present with different signs, both may pose a serious threat to your dog's health and can be difficult to diagnose, based on signs alone.

Upon examination, your veterinarian may recommend the following tests:

  • An antibody test to identify if your pet has been exposed to anaplasmosis
  • Urine tests to rule out urinary tract infections and to evaluate the kidney’s ability to concentrate urine
  • Chemistry tests to evaluate kidney, liver and pancreatic function as well as sugar levels
  • A complete blood count (CBC) to rule out blood-related conditions
  • Electrolyte tests to ensure your dog isn’t dehydrated or suffering from an electrolyte imbalance
  • PCR testing, in some cases

If your dog has been infected with anaplasmosis, your veterinarian will most likely prescribe an antibiotic, such as

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